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BJT forward bias diagram
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"It is no longer possible or economical to repair most electronic equipment thanks to ICs.  The cost of labor, the cost of test instruments to troubleshoot equipment, and the difficulty of replacing ICs have made it more practical to just discard a bad piece of equipment rather than repair it.  It costs less and you get a newer and better replacement product as a result.  Not a bad deal."
            Louis E. Frenzel, Jr.,
            Professor, author, engineer

A diode under forward bias. (MECH 10 lecture graphic)